Diagnostic Laboratory Services- Small Animal serum protein electrophoresisAlbumin.
Albumin may be decreased in association with prolonged poor nutrition, decreased hepatic synthesis or increased loss from the gastrointestinal or urinary systems.
The only physiologic reason for increased albumin is dehydration.Increased Alpha-Globulins
Increases in alpha-1 and mainly alpha-2 globulins are considered significant. Increases are common in acute inflammatory disease.Increased Beta-Globulins
Increases in beta globulins may be non-specific, but have been reported with active liver disease, suppurative dermatopathy and nephrotic syndrome. Sometimes high, sharp monoclonal spikes may be seen in this region due to multiple myeloma, Waldenstrom's macroglobulinaemia or lymphosarcoma.Beta-gamma Bridging
Beta-gamma bridging is the lack of clear separation between the beta and gamma fractions. (It occurs due to fibrinogen if plasma has been used instead of serum.) Beta-gamma bridging in serum samples is strongly correlated with chronic active hepatitis and may be due to increases in IgA and/or IgM. It may also be seen with gammopathy or lymphosarcoma.Decreased Gamma-Globulins
Low levels of gamma globulins may be present with acquired immune system suppression. In mature animals slight decreases may represent relative immune system quiescence.Increased Gamma-Globulins
Increases in gamma-globulins may be polyclonal (broad) or monoclonal (sharp) peaks.
Polyclonal gammopathies may be seen with a variety of conditions resulting in immune stimulation, including chronic infections, chronic hepatitis, immune-mediated diseases or tumours.
Monoclonal or oligoclonal (bi-phasic) gammopathies are most commonly seen with multiple myeloma, cutaneous lymphoma or lymphosarcoma, but also may be present with amyloidosis, canine leishmaniasis or canine ehrlichiosis or other types of immune-mediated disease. Sometimes cats with FIP will have a large monoclonal spike.
'Normal' feline serum protein electrophoresis