AHT Logo

International Breeders' Meeting

INTERNATIONAL COLLATING CENTRE


    Animal Health Trust
    Information Exchange on Infectious Equine Disease

    Lanwades Park, Kentford, Newmarket, Suffolk CB8 7UU, England
    Telephone: + 44 (0) 8700 502424 extension 1266
    Fax: + 44 (0) 1638 555601
    Website: http://www.aht.org.uk
    /icc/linksicc.html


    ----------------------------------------

    PLEASE NOTE DUE TO A CHANGE IN PERSONNEL, IN FUTURE PLEASE CONTACT
    RICHARD NEWTON OR MADELEINE McNAUGHT ON THE ABOVE NUMBER, OR
    E-MAIL madeleine.mcnaught@aht.org.uk TO SUBMIT REPORTING INFORMATION

 

REPORT FOR THE FIRST QUARTER OF 2002

AUSTRALIA

VICTORIA
Strangles
Mild outbreak of strangles (positive Streptococcus equi) in Thoroughbred yearlings in Central Victoria.
Anthrax
Clinical signs resembling Anthrax were negative on smears.
Salmonella
Salmonella typhimurium 9 isolated from dead pony; signs of fever and diarrhoea; death occurred in 36 hours.

QUEENSLAND
Strangles

1/4 horses with clinical signs were positive on culture. Sporadic, isolated clinical cases were reported.
Salmonella
Salmonella typhimurium isolated at autopsy of four month old Thoroughbred foal.
Equine Infectious Anaemia
No positive cases in endemic area.

Cases of habronema infestation reported from both reporting states.

CANADA
No report received

DENMARK
Nothing to report.

FRANCE
Influenza
Diagnosed by serology in the following non-thoroughbreds:
Trotting horses: Loire-Atlantique (in two different stables), Maine-et-Loire
Saddler horses: Manche, Yvelines (in four difference stables), Yonne
Others: Manche, Val d'Oise

Equine Herpes Virus
Abortion Form
Diagnosed by immunofluorescence on cryocutting. If positive, cell culture and PCR confirmation.
Thoroughbreds: Calvados (three difference stables), Orne, Sarthe
Respiratory Form
Thoroughbreds: Bouche-du-Rhone, Maine-et-Loire, Oise.
Non-Thoroughbreds:
Trotting Horses: Val de Marne
Saddler Horses: Eure-et-Loire, Maine-et-Loire, Haute-Savoie, Seine-et-Marne,Yvelines (in four different stables), Yonne, Essonne (in two different stables), Hauts de Seine.
Others: Maine-et-Loire, Moselle (in two different stables), Yvelines

Equine Viral Arteritis
Abortion Form: No equine arteritis virus was detected on 360 samples analysed in 2001.

GERMANY
Equine Herpes Virus Abortion
Single EHV-1 case detected on 8th January 2002. Diagnosed by University of Hannover by PCR and immunfluorescence. Single Resequin NN Plus vaccinated Thoroughbred mare was affected.

EHV-1 outbreak commenced on 20th January 2002 and last reported case was on 27th January 2002. Diagnosed by the University of Munich by PCR, immunfluorescence and virus isolation. The outbreak was limited to Thoroughbred breeding stock with three mares on one premises affected. All horses were properly vaccinated against EHV with Prevaccinol. On 10th December 2001 a single case was detected on the same premises. One vaccinated Thoroughbred mare was affected and aborted due to EHV-1 infection. Extensive serological testing did not reveal any suspected cases, nevertheless the above outbreak still occurred.

HONG KONG
Nothing to report.


REPUBLIC OF IRELAND

No report received

ITALY
Equine Influenza
An outbreak has just occurred at Rome race tracks, involving trotters and Thoroughbreds. The outbreak is not very widespread until now and antibodies have been detected against A/equine-2 (H3N8).

EHV Abortion
Abortion has occurred in central Italy on different breeding farms. On non-vaccinated premises abortion storms have caused almost total loss of pregnancies. No other significant outbreaks.

JAPAN
ADDITIONAL REPORT FROM 2001
EHV-1 Abortion form

One brood mare was affected on 24th December 2001. This horse had not been inoculated.

Contagious Equine Metritis
The occurrence of contagious equine metritis in Japan was explosive for the first time in 1980. Since then, complete eradication has yet to be achieved. An investigation started in 1998 with a four-year plan and only one horse tested positive in 2000. An ambitious screening was carried out by PCR in 2001. As a result, 11 horses (one stallion and 10 brood mares) out of 12,000 were diagnosed positive. The screening is aimed at eradication and will be continued after this year.

2002 FIRST QUARTER REPORT
EHV-1 Abortion form

An outbreak commenced 31st January 2002 with last reported case on 21st March 2002. Breeding stock on six premises were affected with seven horses being involved. Two of these horses had been inoculated.

Tetanus
One Thoroughbred yearling was affected with clinical signs on 23rd January 2002 but has recovered. One non-Thoroughbred yearling was affected with clinical signs on 17th March and died.

NEW ZEALAND
Nothing to report.

NORWAY
No report received

SINGAPORE
No report received

SPAIN
Nothing to report

SWEDEN
EHV-1 Abortion form
Several abortions and early foal fatalities reported. All cases isolated.

EAV
Six stallions have been reported with EAV in semen. All stallions in Sweden are tested before insemination. The owners of mares have had information regarding isolation after insemination.

Strangles
Isolated cases throughout Sweden. Various symptoms.

SWITZERLAND
Equine Herpes Virus
EHV-1 One clinical case only (midlands)

EVA
No notification but the decision was made to start a programme for the vaccination of the active Thoroughbred stallions in this country at the end of this years' breeding season using Artervac®.

Strangles
Two notifications in the Grisons

Piroplasmosis
Seven serological findings only (four B.equi, two B.caballi, one B.caballi and equi) in the western and central part of the country.

Clostridial infections
There have been several cases of botulism in Switzerland in the fourth quarter of 2001 and the first quarter of 2002. Altogether there were at least six different outbreaks in the cantons GE, VD, BE, AG, LU and SH. At least 23 horses were affected and 13 were euthanased. Cases had in common that the horses were fed with silage or haylage. In earlier years, equine cases of botulism were very sporadic and normally reported in connection with decaying cadavers in feed. This acute accumulation of cases appears due to the feeding of silage which has become extremely popular in Switzerland. One feed merchant did report that he delivered about 100 tons of silage three years ago; last year, he sold approximately 1,000 tons. We have not been able to typify toxins involved so far. However, treatment with antitoxin C/D from South Africa (with a special allowance) did seem to make a difference to the outcome of some cases. We are afraid there will be further cases and plan to have a vaccine and antitoxin registered in Switzerland. Moreover, education of horse-owners is considered of great importance.

TURKEY
Nothing to report.

UNITED ARAB EMIRATES
Protozoan Diseases
Piroplasmosis Both B.equi and B.caballi sporadically endemic.


UNITED KINGDOM
EHV-1
Herpesvirus paralysis
Between 20th and 31st January, four horses in one group of unvaccinated non-Thoroughbreds were euthanased due to sudden onset of severe ataxia, progressing to recumbency. One further horse showed transient ataxia. EHV-1 was isolated from post-mortem tissue of the last case. Serological surveillance indicated viral spread to nine of 24 contacts. All movement has been stopped until no further seroconversions are detected.

Herpesvirus abortion
A single case has occurred in a Throughbred with an unknown vaccination history. Diagnosis by PCR on foetal tissues. No further details available at present.

A single case occurred on 11th March 2002 in a non-vaccinated Thoroughbred. Diagnosis by histological lesions and PCR. In contact with one pregnant mare who has not aborted to date.

A single case occurred on 15th March 2002 in a vaccinated Thoroughbred. Diagnosis by histological lesions and PCR. In contact with 13 other vaccinated mares of which 11 have already foaled safely. No further abortions to date.

Strangles
No cases have been diagnosed in Thoroughbreds during the period but infection remains endemic in the non-Thoroughbred population.

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Influenza
A single isolate of A/equine-2 (H3N8) was confirmed from an outbreak of acute respiratory disease among horses at the University of Kentucky Farm in December 2001

Equine Herpes Virus Abortion (EHV-1)
Eighteen cases of EHV-1 abortion have been confirmed among Thoroughbred horses in central Kentucky between October 2001 and March 2002. The majority were single cases on individual farms except two farms with two cases each.

Mare Reproductive Loss Syndrome (MRLS)
No cases were reported during the first quarter although information including accessions to the Livestock Disease Diagnostic Center and weekly weather data for the central Kentucky area is available at www.ca.uky.edu.

West Nile Virus (WNV)
The USDA has not published final figures for equine cases in the USA during 2001. Preliminary data indicate that at least 700 equine cases, with over 600 occurring in Florida, were diagnosed with an estimated 20% mortality. During 2001 sixty-six human cases were reported with nine deaths. So far in 2002, four equine cases have been reported, all in Florida, with evidence of WNV infection among birds in Louisiana. A paper entitled 'Experimental Infection of Horses with West Nile Virus' by Bunning, M.L., et al published in Emerging Infectious Diseases, April 2002, vol. 8, no.4, pp.380-386 reports that horses infected with the NY99 strain of WNV develop low viremia levels of short duration; therefore, infected horses are unlikely to serve as important amplifying vectors for WNV in nature.

Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE)
A report on Promed March 20 indicated that the deaths of several horses in Honduras, Central America during March was attributable to VEE.