Summary Report for First Quarter 2017

Please note that the Australian reports are being reported one quarter in arrears behind the quarter being reported. However, there is a slight delay with the FOURTH QUARTER Report of 2016 for Australia, which will be circulated as soon as received. FIRST QUARTER reports for 2017 for other countries are provided after this in the usual way.

This report is based on information received by the Animal Health Trust, Registered Charity Number 209642, which cannot accept any responsibility for the accuracy or
completeness of such information.

REPORT FOR FOURTH QUARTER 2016 FROM AUSTRALIA
The report for FOURTH quarter 2016 from Australia will follow at a later date.

REPORT FOR THE FIRST QUARTER 2017

ARGENTINA
Equine Viral Ateritis (EVA)
Imported semen from an Arabian stallion was detected positive to EVA during pre-import quarantine thus ensuring Argentina remains EVA free. The confirming laboratory was INTA Castelar with diagnosis by agent isolation and RT PCR

AUSTRALIA
Report pending.

CANADA
Equine Infectious Anaemia (EIA)
Between 1st January 2017 and 31st March 2017, a total of ten EIA positive equines were identified in the provinces of Quebec (one case) and Saskatchewan (nine cases). The positive animals were identified on five separate premises in Quebec (one premises) and Saskatchewan (four premises).

All four of the affected Saskatchewan premises were epidemiologically linked and severe clinical disease was reported on the index premises. Each of the premises in Saskatchewan had been involved in previous CFIA EIA investigations and disease control actions, including testing contacts and ordering the destruction of positive cases, were undertaken.

CHILE
Regret no report received.

DENMARK
Strangles (Streptococcus equi)
Strangles was diagnosed in five performance horses on one premises between 1st February 2017 and 22nd March 2017. Positive diagnoses were confirmed by agent isolation.

FRANCE (Information supplied via the RESPE, the French network for epidemiosurveillance of equine diseases)
Equine Herpes Virus-1 (EHV-1) Abortion
On 11th January 2017, three new cases of EHV-1 abortion were confirmed in Pas-de-Calais, on a saddlebred stud farm. The outbreak commenced on 28th December 2016. Two other cases were confirmed on the 30th December 2016. Positive diagnoses were confirmed by PCR on fetal organs.

On 1st February 2017, a case was confirmed in Seine-et-Marne. The positive diagnosis was confirmed by PCR on fetal organs.

On 10th February 2017, a case was confirmed in Nièvre. The positive diagnosis was confirmed by PCR on fetal organs.

On 24th February 2017, a case was confirmed in Manche in a non-vaccinated four-year-old French Trotter. The positive diagnosis was confirmed by PCR on placenta.

On 13th March 2017, a case was confirmed in Loire in an eight-year-old French Trotter. The positive diagnosis was confirmed by PCR on placenta.

On 24th March 2016, a case was confirmed in Pas-de-Calais in a non-vaccinated Thoroughbred. The positive diagnosis was confirmed by PCR on fetal organs (liver).

On 31st March 2017, an outbreak was confirmed in Sarthe in a vaccinated nine-year-old French Trotter. The diagnosis was confirmed by PCR on an uterine swab. Then on 10th April 2016, a new case was confirmed in the same facilities in a vaccinated 17-year-old French Trotter that showed jaundice. Five other mares on the stud farm also aborted. The positive diagnosis was confirmed by PCR on foetal organs.

Equine Herpes Virus -1 (EHV-1) Neurological Disease
On 27th February 2017, a case was confirmed in Pas-de-Calais. Positive diagnosis was confirmed by PCR on a blood sample.

Equine Herpes Virus-1 (EHV-1) Respiratory Disease
On 3rd March 2017, a case of EHV-1 respiratory disease was confirmed in Pas-de-Calais in a riding school. The affected horse was a five-year-old French Saddlebred mare that showed clinical signs of anorexia, pyrexia and nasal discharge. Positive diagnoses were confirmed by PCR on a nasopharyngeal swab.

On 9th March 2017, a case of EHV-1 infection was confirmed in Bas-Rhin. The positive diagnosis was confirmed by PCR on an nasopharyngeal swab. An abortion had occurred at the same facility three weeks earlier, without any confirmation of EHV-1 infection.

On 24th March 2017, a case of EHV-1 respiratory disease was confirmed in Nièvre. The positive diagnosis was confirmed by PCR on a nasopharyngeal swab.
Equine Herpes Virus-4 (EHV4) Abortion

On 3rd March 2017, a case of EHV-4 abortion was confirmed in a six-year-old non-vaccinated Andalusian. The positive diagnosis was made by PCR on fetal organs.

Equine Herpes Virus-4 (EHV-4) Respiratory Disease
Eight outbreaks of EHV-4 respiratory disease have been confirmed (six outbreaks with one case, one outbreak with two cases and one outbreak with three cases) in Ain, Calvados, Loire-Atlantique, Orne and Pas-de-Calais. Affected horses showed clinical signs of pyrexia, nasal discharge and lethargy. For all of these outbreaks, positive diagnoses were confirmed by PCR on nasopharyngeal swabs.

Piroplasmosis
Remains endemic in France.

Strangles (Streptococcus equi)
Twenty-one outbreaks have been reported during the first quarter of 2017 (17 outbreaks with one case and one outbreak each with three, five, six and seven cases). These outbreaks occurred in Aude, Calvados, Côte-d’Or, Eure, Haute-Garonne, Gironde, Hérault, Indre-et-Loire, Loire-Atlantique, Pas-de-Calais, Saône-et-Loire, Seine-Maritime, Seine-et-Marne and Vienne. Affected horses showed clinical signs of nasal discharge, pyrexia, lymphadenopathy, coughing, and lethargy. For all these outbreaks positive diagnoses were made by PCR (17 cases), or bacterial culture (one case), on nasopharyngeal swabs (nine cases), pus or purulent nasal discharges (four cases), nasal swabs (two cases) and tracheal washes (two cases).

GERMANY
Equine Infectious Anaemia (EIA)
On 11th January 2017 the Friedrich Loeffler Institute (National laboratory) confirmed a clinical case of EIA on a premises in Landkreis Amberg-Sulzbach (Bavaria). One horse out of five susceptible animals on the premises tested positive by an agar gel precipitation (AGP) test. The affected animal was euthanased and quarantine measures, including movement restrictions and the screening of all equidae resident in the quarantine zone, have been implemented. In the course of the control measures the Regional Reference Laboratory in Erlangen confirmed two further subclinical cases of EIA in Landkreis Amberg-Sulzbach (Bavaria) on 19th January 2017. They were tested positive by agar gel precipitation (AGP) test. The source of the outbreak is still unknown.

Additional results received from Labor Dr Boese GmBh – an HBLB CEMO registered laboratory
Contagious Equine Metritis (CEM)
CEM was confirmed in eight horses on six separate premises during the first quarter of 2017. Positive diagnoses were confirmed by culture and/or PCR on genital swabs.

Equine Herpes Virus-1 (EHV-1) Abortion
EHV-1 abortion was confirmed in four horses on four separate premises during the first quarter of 2017. Positive diagnoses were confirmed by PCR on fetal lung puncture aspirates, uterine discharges and endometrial swabs.

Equine Herpes Virus-1 (EHV-1) Respiratory Disease
EHV-1 respiratory disease was confirmed in two horses on two separate premises during the first quarter of 2017. Positive diagnoses were confirmed by PCR on nasopharyngeal swabs.

Equine Herpes Virus-4 (EHV-4) Respiratory Disease
EHV-4 respiratory disease was confirmed in six horses on four separate premises during the first quarter of 2017. Positive diagnoses were confirmed by PCR on nasopharyngeal swabs.

Strangles (Streptococcus equi)
Strangles was confirmed in five horses on five separate premises during the first quarter of 2017. The affected animals showed clinical signs of pyrexia, nasal discharge and lymphadenopathy with diagnoses made by bacterial culture and PCR on nasopharyngeal swabs and on abscess material from submandibular lymph nodes and a guttural pouch wash.

HONG KONG
Confirmed nothing to report.

IRELAND (Republic of)
Equine Herpes Virus-1 (EHV-1)
Seven cases of EHV-1 were reported during the first quarter of 2017 in the following counties, Carlow (one case), Kildare (two cases), Limerick (one case), Meath (one case), Wexford (one case) and Tipperary (one case). No further details were available.

Atypical Myopathy (AM)
Two cases of AM were reported during the first quarter of 2017 in Leinster. No further details were available.

ITALY
Regret no report received.

JAPAN
Equine Herpes Virus-1 (EHV-1) Abortion
EHV-1 abortion was diagnosed in 11 Thoroughbreds on seven separate premises between 3rd January 2017 and 27th March 2017. Positive diagnoses were based on PCR conducted by Hokkaido Hidaka Livestock Hygiene Service Center. Nine of the animals were vaccinated.

MALAYSIA
Regret no report received.

NEW ZEALAND
Confirmed nothing to report.

SINGAPORE
Confirmed nothing to report.

SOUTH AFRICA
Strangles (Streptococcus equi)
Strangles is endemic in South Africa and occurs sporadically.

African Horse Sickness (AHS)
In the first quarter of 2017, outbreaks of AHS were confirmed in all Provinces in South Africa except in the Eastern Cape and the Western Cape. No cases occurred within the AHS controlled area of South Africa in the Western Cape Province. Cases of AHS in the infected area are as expected for this period of time.

Contagious Equine Metritis (CEM)
In January 2017 a semen donor stallion tested positive for CEM in the Gauteng province during the routine screening programme for all breeding stallions. This is the first positive CEM case since 2013 and the bacterial strain was typed as the same strain as the 2011 outbreak. Measures to contain and treat the affected horses were immediately implemented and traceback investigation is underway under the supervision of the responsible state veterinarian. The current countrywide surveillance programme remains in place.

Equine Encephalosis (EE)
Testing for Equine Encephalosis is frequently done in conjunction with AHS testing in South Africa. Cases of EE were confirmed in Gauteng and Mpumalamga during the first quarter of 2017. This is not as widespread as the equivalent time in previous years.

Arboviruses
Between January and March 2017, an increase in Middleburg and West Nile virus (WNV) positives were detected from across South Africa relative to 2016, through an ongoing surveillance scheme managed by the University of Pretoria’s Emerging Vectorborne and respiratory virus programme, Centre for Viral Zoonosis, Department Medical Virology. A total of 22 WNV cases and 30 Middleburg cases were detected, with one co-infection. Most cases of WNV and Middelburg virus were detected in the Gauteng Province. Diagnostic testing includes realtime RT PCR tests for flavi and alphaviruses with specific probes for WNV, Wesselsbron, Middelburg and Sindbis viruses and specific PCRs for Shunivirus and Equine Encephalosis virus. Serology for WNV includes an IgM ELISA with confirmatory neutralisation assays. Veterinarians from across the country submit samples from neurological cases they encounter throughout the year.

SOUTH KOREA
Piroplasmosis
A serological survey for piroplasmosis was conducted from 1,380 serum samples of various Thoroughbred stallions, broodmares, racehorses, ponies, riding horses, etc. Sample collections and the tests were performed by Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency (QIA) and Korea Racing Authority (KRA) of South Korea. Results showed that only one sample (0.07%) on the premises of Gyeong-sang province (South-eastern part of ROK) tested positive for Theileria Equi using commercially available CATT and PCR tests.

Contagious Equine Metritis (CEM)
KRA conducted examination for CEM on 2,086 samples from Thoroughbred stallions and broodmares registered in the South Korean Studbook (http://studbook.kra.co.kr). Results showed that 20 of 2,086 samples tested positive (0.96%) by qPCR on venereal swabs. Positive horses were treated followed by further examination by QIA until three consecutively negative results were returned.

SPAIN
Report pending.

SWEDEN
Confirmed nothing to report.

SWITZERLAND
Strangles (Streptococcus equi)
One case of strangles was confirmed during the first quarter of 2017. Diagnosis was confirmed by agent isolation. No further details are available.

TURKEY
Confirmed nothing to report.

UNITED ARAB EMIRATES (UAE)
Regret no report received.

UNITED KINGDOM
Please note that all UK cases and outbreaks have already been notified via interim reports during the first quarter and since. Strangles (Streptococcus equi) remains endemic in UK horses.

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Clostridial Diseases
A small number of cases of enteritis associated with Clostridium difficile Type A toxin genotype or Type B toxin genotype or C. perfringens Type A toxin genotype were reported in foals. Single cases of Tyzzer’s Disease caused by C. piliformis and C. novyi were confirmed.

Coronavirus Infection
Two cases of Coronavirus infection were recorded in Nevada during the first quarter of 2017, neither of which was life-threatening.

Equine Adenovirus Infection
Two cases of equine adenovirus infection were confirmed in Kentucky.

Equine Coital Exanthema (EHV-3 Infection)
One case of Equine Herpes Virus-3 (EHV-3) venereal infection was reported in Kentucky.

Equine Herpes Virus Disease Syndromes
Equine Herpes Virus-1 and -4 (EHV-1 and-4) related respiratory disease was widespread in different states with EHV-4 infection primarily implicated in disease in young foals. A total of four cases of EHV-1 abortion were diagnosed in Kentucky. EHV-1 related outbreaks of neurological disease were reported in Louisiana (one case); California (two cases), Michigan (one case) and Oregon (one case). Some of the outbreaks were associated with strains of the ORF30 A2254 genotype (so called ‘non-neuropathogenic’), others with strains of the ORF30 G2254 genotype (so called ‘neuropathogenic’). With the exception of an outbreak at the New Orleans Fairgrounds Racetrack involving up to eight cases of the disease, the remaining outbreaks involved only isolated cases of EHV-1 infection.

Equine Herpes Viruses-2 &-5 (EHV-2 & -5)
Multiple cases of infection with EHV-2 and/or EHV-5 were diagnosed during the first quarter of 2017, some associated with signs of respiratory disease.

Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA)
Illinois reported two cases of EIA both on the same premises.

Equine Influenza
Equine influenza is endemic in the USA. Disease outbreaks were confirmed in four states, the majority involving multiple cases of the disease.

Equine Piroplasmosis (EP)
Two cases were confirmed infected with Theileria equi in Texas that were epidemiologically linked to a cluster of cases diagnosed in Spring 2016. A further case was reported in a horse in Florida imported originally from Brazil.

Nocardioform Placentitis
Some eleven cases of nocardioform placentitis associated with Amycolatopsis spp and/or Crossiella equi infection were confirmed in Kentucky.

Proliferative Enteropathy
Several cases of infection with Lawsonia intracellularis were recorded in foals in Kentucky and Pennsylvania.

Salmonellosis
A limited number of cases of salmonellosis related to infection with serogroup B or C1 Salmonellae were recorded.

Strangles (Streptococcus equi)
Strangles is endemic in the USA. Fifty-eight outbreaks involving 103 horses were recorded in 22 states during the first quarter of 2017. Eleven of the outbreaks involved multiple cases of the disease.

VENEZUELA
Confirmed nothing to report.

REGARDS
INTERNATIONAL COLLATING CENTRE