Summary Report for First Quarter 2018

Report for the First Quarter 2018

 

ARGENTINA

Confirmed nothing to report.

 

AUSTRALIA

Confirmed nothing to report.

 

CANADA

Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA)

Between 1 January  and 31 March 31 2018, there were a total of three EIA positive equine cases identified in the province of Alberta (AB) on two separate premises. Two of the animals were identified as part of an ongoing investigation that began on the premises in October 2017.  The index case had been exhibiting severe clinical signs compatible with EIA infection and had died shortly after sampling. Disease investigation testing has identified a total of three additional positives; one in November 2017, and two in January 2018. A positive case was identified in February on a separate AB premises. The animal was clinically ill and died shortly after sampling. No epidemiological link was found between the cases on the two AB premises. Disease investigation activities are ongoing. Diagnoses were confirmed by serology by CFIA’s national reference laboratory for EIA.

 

CHILE

Regret no report received.

 

DENMARK

Regret no report received.

 

FRANCE

Information supplied via the Réseau d’Epidémio-Surveillance en Pathologie Equine (RESPE), the French network for epidemiosurveillance of equine diseases.

Contagious Equine Metritis (CEM)

On 30 January 2018 a confirmed case of contagious equine metritis (CEM) was reported on a premises in Calvados, France. The subclinical infection was detected based on bacteriology on a pre-mating genital swab taken from a fifteen-year-old Andalusian stallion. The affected animal was imported to France in 2007 and has not been used for natural covering during that time. Treatment has been instigated and sampling will be repeated upon completion of treatment.

Equine Herpes Virus-1 (EHV-1) Abortion

Eight outbreaks were confirmed during first quarter 2018, as follows:

  • On 29 January 2018, a case of EHV-1 abortion was confirmed in a mare in Orne. There have been three cases of abortion at this stud premises since mid-November 2017 and a fourth mare was displaying signs of pyrexia. The positive diagnosis was confirmed by PCR on fetal tissues.
  • On 16 February, a single case was confirmed in Ain.  The positive diagnosis was confirmed by PCR on foetal organs.
  • On 22 February, a single case was confirmed in Calvados in a four-year-old vaccinated French Trotter on a stud farm. Sixty mares were present on the facility. Another mare aborted on the same premises. Control measures were implemented including isolation of the infected animals and quarantine of the premises.  Positive diagnoses were confirmed by PCR on foetal organs.
  • On 21 March, a single case was confirmed on a stud farm in Gironde in an eight-year-old vaccinated Thoroughbred.  Positive diagnosis was confirmed by PCR on placenta.
  • On 23 March, a single case was confirmed in Calvados. Positive diagnosis was confirmed by PCR on fetal organs.
  • On 25 March, a single case was confirmed in Calvados. Positive diagnosis was by PCR on fetal organs.
  • On 26 March, a single case was confirmed in Orne in an eight-year-old Throroughbred on a stud farm. A further 130 other mares were present on the facility. Positive diagnosis was confirmed by PCR on placenta.
  • On 26 March, an outbreak was confirmed in Meurthe-et-Moselle in a non-vaccinated French Saddlebred on a stud farm. Positive diagnoses were confirmed by PCR on blood (two cases) and fetal organs (one case).  In total, out of 30 mares, four abortions were reported. Control measures including isolation of affected animals and quarantine of the premises were implemented.

Equine Herpes Virus-1 (EHV-1) Infection

On 2 February, one outbreak of EHV-1 infection was confirmed in Essonne, in a French Trotter in a training centre. The affected horse showed clinical signs of pyrexia and was placed in quarantine. Positive diagnosis was confirmed by PCR on a nasopharyngeal swab.

On 27 March, an outbreak was confirmed in Maine-et-Loire in three horses. Positive diagnoses were confirmed by PCR on nasopharyngeal swabs.

On 29 March, one case was confirmed in Sarthe.

Equine Herpes Virus-1 (EHV-1) Neurological Disease

On 22 March, a single case of EHV-1 neurological disease was confirmed in Ille-et-Vilaine in a sport horse that showed clinical signs of pyrexia and neurological syndrome.  The horse was euthanased.  On the same premises, seven other horses also tested positive to EHV-1 but did not show neurological signs and only some of them presented with pyrexia. Control measures including isolation of affected animals and quarantine of the premises were implemented. Other horses were closely monitored to control the outbreak. Positive diagnoses were confirmed by PCR on a blood sample.

Equine Herpes Virus-1 (EHV-1) : call for vigilance

A call for vigilance regarding EHV-1 risk of infection was released on the 30 March 2018. Even though the number of outbreaks were not significantly higher than during the first quarter 2017, the total number of cases seen, especially in high health status horses such as Thoroughbreds, French Trotters or sport horses, together with the high number of vaccinated horses showing clinical signs was considered a warning sign of an unusual epidemiological situation.

Equine Herpes Virus-4 (EHV-4) infection

Four outbreaks of unspecific EHV-4 infection have been confirmed (each with one case), in Calvados, Landes, Orne and Var. Positive diagnoses were confirmed on nasopharyngeal swabs (three cases) and blood (one case) using PCR.

Equine Herpes Virus-4 (EHV-4) Respiratory Disease

Ten outbreaks of EHV-4 respiratory disease were confirmed during first quarter 2018 (nine outbreaks with one case and one outbreak with two cases). These outbreaks occurred in Calvados, Charente, Cher, Landes, Orne, Pas-de-Calais and Seine-et-Marne. Affected horses showed clinical signs of pyrexia, coughing, lymphadenopathy and nasal discharge. Positive diagnoses were confirmed on nasopharyngeal swabs (eight cases), nasal swab (one case) and nasal wash (one case) using PCR. Of these cases, three horses were Saddlebreds used for leisure or in riding schools and three were Thoroughbreds on stud farms. The breed of the other four cases was not reported.

Equine Infectious Anaemia (EIA)

On 27 December 2017, one outbreak of EIA had been confirmed by the National Reference Laboratory on a blood sample (serology) in Alpes-Maritimes in an Arabian horse showing clinical signs of ataxia, lethargy and weight loss.

On 18 January 2018, a case of EIA was reported in Var, France. The outbreak is epidemiologically linked to the outbreak reported above (27 December 2017). The infected horse, a Saddlebred, has been euthanased and appropriate prevention and control measures will be instigated for the one in contact. The outbreak has also been notified to the OIE.

Piroplasmosis

Remains endemic in France.

Strangles (Streptococcus equi) 

Twenty-one outbreaks have been reported (18 outbreaks with one case, two outbreaks with two cases, one outbreak with three cases) during first quarter 2018.  These outbreaks occurred in Allier, Calvados, Côte-d’Or, Doubs, Haute-Garonne, Hérault, Indre-et-Loire, Manche, Mayenne, Morbihan, Oise, Orne, Saône-et-Loire, Sarthe, Essonne and Val-de-Marne. Affected horses showed clinical signs including, pyrexia, lymphadenopathy, nasal discharge, abscesses, anorexia, coughing and dysphagia. Positive diagnoses were made by PCR on either nasopharyngeal swabs, nasal swabs, nasal wash or guttural pouch wash or on clinical signs alone.

 

GERMANY

Please note that all German cases and outbreaks have already been notified via interim reports during the first quarter and since.

Additional results received from Labor Dr Boese GmBh – an HBLB CEMO registered laboratory

 Contagious Equine Metritis (CEM)

CEM was confirmed in seven horses, six stallions (four Icelandic horses and two Quarter horses) and one mare on six separate premises during the first quarter 2018.  Positive diagnoses were confirmed by PCR and culture of genital swabs.

Equine Herpes Virus-1 (EHV-1) Respiratory Disease

EHV-1 respiratory disease was confirmed in 25 horses during the first quarter 2018.  Positive diagnoses were confirmed by PCR on nasopharyngeal swabs.

Equine Herpes Virus-1 (EHV-1) Abortion

EHV-1 abortion was confirmed in four mares during first quarter 2018.  Positive diagnoses were confirmed by PCR on lochia and lung puncture aspirate.

Equine Herpes Virus-4 (EHV-4) Respiratory Disease

EHV-4 respiratory disease was confirmed in four horses during the first quarter 2018.  Positive diagnoses were confirmed by PCR on nasopharyngeal swabs.

Equine Herpes Virus-4 (EHV-4) Abortion

EHV-4 abortion was confirmed in one mare during first quarter 2018.  Positive diagnosis was confirmed on PCR on lochia and lung puncture aspirate.

Rotavirus

Rotavirus was confirmed in two foals on one premises during first quarter 2018.  Clinical signs included diarrhoea.  Positive diagnoses were confirmed by Ag ELISA.

Strangles (Streptococcus equi)  

Strangles was confirmed in two horses on two separate premises during the first quarter 2018.  The affected animals showed clinical signs of abscessation of retropharyngeal and submandibular lymph nodes.  Positive diagnoses were confirmed by PCR.

 

HONG KONG

Confirmed nothing to report.

 

IRELAND (Republic of)

Equine Herpes Virus (EHV) Infection

Ten cases of EHV infection were reported during the first quarter 2018 in, County Kildare (three cases), County Limerick (two cases), County Monaghan (one case), Munster (one case), County Offaly (one case), County Tipperary (one case) and County Wexford (one case).  No further information is currently available.

 Strangles (Streptococcus equi) 

During the first quarter of 2018, 53 cases of strangles were reported with 43 confirmed positive by PCR as follows, Leinster (seven cases), Munster (45 cases) and Ulster (one case).  No further information is currently available.

 

 ITALY

Regret no report received.

 

 JAPAN

Equine Herpes Virus-1 (EHV-1) Abortion

EHV-1 was reported in 13 Thoroughbreds on 13 separate premises between 3 January 2018 and 30 March 2018.  Nine of the horses were vaccinated.  The confirming laboratories were Hokkaido Hidaka Livestock Hygiene Service Center and Hokkaido Iburi Livestock Hygiene Service Center.

 

MALAYSIA

Regret no report received.

 

NEW ZEALAND

Confirmed nothing to report.

 

SINGAPORE

Confirmed nothing to report.

 

SOUTH AFRICA

Reporting is based on laboratory reports as well as reports by private veterinarians using a reporting system recently developed in conjunction with the South African Equine Veterinary Association. The numbers are a reflection of this reporting and do not necessarily reflect the official totals as reported through official channels.

African Horse Sickness (AHS)

There was an expected seasonal increase in AHS cases in the infected zone of the country. Based on laboratory reports, cases occurred in the Free State Province (10 cases), Gauteng Province (seven cases), Kwa-Zulu Natal Province (27 cases), Mpumalanga Province (two cases), Northern Cape Province (13 cases), North West Province (four cases), Limpopo Province (one case) and the Eastern Cape Province (24 cases). No cases occurred in the Western Cape Province or within the AHS controlled area in the Western Cape Province.

Equine Encephalosis

Equine encephalitis was reported in the Kwa-Zulu Natal Province (48 cases), with a single case reported in both the Mpumalanga Province and North West Province and two cases reported in the Limpopo Province.

Piroplasmosis

Piroplasmosis was reported in Gauteng (31 cases), Kwa-Zulu Natal Province (two cases), Eastern Cape Province (two cases) and in the Mpumalanga Province (five cases).

Equine Herpes Virus-1 (EHV-1) Neurological Disease

Two cases of EHV-1 neurological disease were reported on the same premises in the Free State Province.

Internal parasites

Gastrodiscus infestation was reported in five horses in the Gauteng Province.

 

 SOUTH KOREA

Confirmed nothing to report.

 

SPAIN

Regret no report received.

 

SWEDEN

Regret no report received.

 

SWITZERLAND

Equine Herpes Virus-1 (EHV-1)

One case of EHV-1 was confirmed during March 2018 with the positive diagnosis confirmed by PCR.  Clinical signs included pyrexia and neurological signs.

Equine Herpes Virus-1 &-4 (EHV-1&-4)

One case of EHV-1 and -4 was confirmed during March 2018 with the positive diagnosis confirmed by PCR.  Clinical signs included pyrexia and colic.

Equine Herpes Virus-4 (EHV-4)

Two cases of EHV-4 were confirmed first quarter 2018 with positive diagnoses confirmed by PCR.  Clinical signs included pyrexia in one case and pyrexia and diarrhoea in the second case.

 

TURKEY

Confirmed nothing to report.

 

UNITED ARAB EMIRATES (UAE)

Regret no report received.

 

UNITED KINGDOM

Please note that all UK cases and outbreaks have already been notified via interim reports during the fourth quarter and since.  Strangles (Streptococcus equi) remains endemic in UK horses.

 

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

Clostridial Related Diseases

Three cases of Clostridium perfringens Type A toxin genotype were diagnosed in foals in Kentucky.

Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis (EEE)

Four cases of EEE were confirmed, all in Florida, two in January and two in March.

Equine Herpes Virus Disease Syndromes

Equine Herpes Virus-1 and -4 (EHV-1 and -4) related respiratory disease was widespread, with EHV-4 primarily implicated in causing respiratory illness in foals.  Two cases of EHV-1 abortion were reported during the review period.  Twenty-three outbreaks of EHV-1 neurological disease were confirmed in the first quarter of 2018; a total of 27 cases involving multiple states were recorded.

Equine Herpes Virus-2 & -5 (EHV-2 and-5)

Multiple cases of infection with EHV-2 and/or EHV-5 were confirmed in several states, some associated with clinical signs of respiratory disease.

Equine Herpes Virus-3 (EHV-3) Infection

The virus was confirmed in one case of coital exanthema in Kentucky.

Equine Infectious Anemia  (EIA)

Equine infectious anemia was diagnosed in one horse in Texas that was subsequently euthanased.

Equine Influenza

Equine influenza is endemic in the USA.  The disease was confirmed in three states, with multiple outbreaks recorded in one state.

Nocardioform Placentitis

Three cases of Nocardioform placentitis associated with Amycolatopsis spp. were confirmed; two in Kentucky and one in North Carolina.  An additional four cases of the disease associated with Crossiella equi infection were diagnosed in Kentucky.

Proliferative Enteropathy

One case of infection with Lawsonia intracellularis was recorded in a foal in Kentucky.

Rhodococcal Related Disease

Rhodococcus equi infection is endemic in the USA, with many cases/outbreaks going unreported.

Salmonellosis

A total of 11 cases of salmonellosis were reported in the period under review, all associated with strains of Salmonellae belonging to serogroup B.

Strangles (Streptococcus equi)

Strangles is endemic in the country with a total of 65 outbreaks of the disease recorded in 22 states.  Ten outbreaks involved multiple cases of strangles.

 

 VENEZUELA

Regret no report received.