Summary Report for Fourth Quarter 2017

Please note that the Australian reports are usually being reported one quarter in arrears behind the quarter being reported. However, there is a delay with the SECOND QUARTER AND THIRD QUARTER Reports of 2017 for Australia, which will be circulated as soon as received. FOURTH QUARTER reports for 2017 for other countries are provided after this in the usual way.

REPORT FOR SECOND AND THIRD QUARTERS 2017 FROM AUSTRALIA

The report for SECOND AND THIRD quarters 2017 from Australia will follow at a later date.

 

REPORT FOR THE FOURTH QUARTER 2017

 

ARGENTINA

Rotavirus

Two outbreaks of rotavirus affecting six Thoroughbred foals on two separate premises were reported during fourth quarter 2017.  The first outbreak in October involved foals born from unvaccinated mares and the second outbreak in November involved foals born from vaccinated mares. In both outbreaks the foals presented with diarrhoea at two months old. Positive diagnoses were obtained by antigen-detection ELISA by the confirming laboratory INTA.

 

AUSTRALIA

Reports pending.

 

CANADA

Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA)

Between 1 October and 31 December 2017, there were a total of five EIA positive equines identified in the provinces of Alberta (four cases) and Quebec (one case).  The positive animals were located on four separate premises, Alberta (three premises) and Quebec (one premises).

One of the animals identified in Alberta was exhibiting significant signs of clinical disease and died shortly after sampling.  The investigation on that premises continues as additional cases (non-clinical), have been identified during disease investigation.

The other Alberta and Quebec cases were tested to comply with either export requirements or domestic movement requirements (i.e. private premises pre-entry).  None of those cases were found to be linked and no signs of disease were reported at the time of sampling.  The confirming laboratory was CFIA’s National Reference Laboratory for EIA.

 

CHILE

Regret no report received.

 

DENMARK

Regret no report received.

 

FRANCE (Information supplied via the RESPE, the French network for epidemiosurveillance of equine diseases)

Contagious Equine Metritis (CEM)

One case of CEM was confirmed during the fourth quarter 2017 in a one-year-old Thoroughbred filly in a training centre.  The subclinical infection was detected in a pre-export genital swab. The filly had never been bred and the cause of the infection remains unknown. Further tests carried out post-treatment  yielded negative results.

Equine Herpes Virus-1 (EHV-1) Abortion

During the fourth quarter two single cases of EHV-1 abortion were confirmed. One on 6 December 2017 in Orne, the other on 29 December 2017 in Nièvre.  Positive diagnoses were confirmed by PCR on fetal tissues.

Equine Herpes Virus-1 (EHV-1) Neurological Disease

On the 23 October 2017, one outbreak of EHV-1 neurological disease was confirmed in Calvados, in a six-year-old male French Saddlebred that showed clinical signs of ataxia, lethargy and pyrexia. The positive diagnosis was confirmed by PCR on a nasopharyngeal swab. Biosecurity measures were put into place including; isolation, restriction of movements inside and outside the premises and treatment of the affected animal. There were 14 other horses on the premises.

On 9 December 2017, one case of EHV-1 neurological disease was confirmed on a stud farm in Calvados, in a French Saddlebred mare that showed clinical signs of ataxia and recumbency.  There were 80 other horses on the premises. The positive diagnosis was confirmed by PCR on a nasopharyngeal swab.

On 22 December 2017, one case of EHV-1 neurological disease was confirmed by PCR in Alpes-Maritimes in a training centre, in a seven-year-old male Thoroughbred that showed clinical signs of ataxia.  Three other horses showed clinical signs of pyrexia. Biosecurity measures have been established including; isolation of the affected animal and other in-contact horses, disinfection, surveillance of other horses on the premises (temperature) and control of movement. A follow-up of the group has been carried out by PCR with no other affected horses.

Equine Herpes Virus-4 (EHV 4) Respiratory Disease

Eighteen outbreaks of EHV-4 respiratory disease have been confirmed (nine outbreaks with one case, two outbreaks with two cases, one outbreak with three cases and one outbreak with four cases). These outbreaks occurred in Ain, Calvados, Charente, Côtes-d’Armor, Finistère, Ille-et-Vilaine, Manche, Orne, Puy-de-Dôme and Pyrénées-Atlantiques. Affected horses showed clinical signs of pyrexia, nasal discharge, coughing and stiffness. Two of the outbreaks occurred in Thoroughbreds (in Calvados and Côtes-d’Armor). For all of these outbreaks, positive diagnoses were confirmed on nasopharyngeal swabs by a laboratory using PCR.

Equine Infectious Anaemia (EIA)

On 27 December 2017, one outbreak was confirmed by the National Reference Laboratory on a blood sample (serology), in an Arabian horse that was mainly used for leisure. The affected horse showed clinical signs of ataxia, lethargy and weight loss. Two other horses present on the premises will be tested for the disease. The positive horse will be euthanased. An epidemiological investigation has started to determine the source of the infection and the OIE have been notified.

Piroplasmosis

Remains endemic in France.

Rotavirus

On 31 October 2017, one case of rotavirus was confirmed in Morbihan in a one-month-old French Saddlebred foal showing clinical signs of diarrhoea, pyrexia and lethargy. The positive diagnosis was made by PCR on a rectal swab. There are 30 other horses at the premises.

Strangles (Streptococcus equi)

There have been 11 outbreaks reported (seven outbreaks with one case, two outbreaks with two cases, one outbreak with four cases and one outbreak with seven cases). These outbreaks occurred in Côtes-d’Armor, Dordogne, Ille-et-Vilaine, Manche, Moselle, Orne, Rhône, Sarthe and Tarn-et-Garonne. The affected horses showed clinical signs of lymphadenopathy, hyperthermia, nasal discharge, coughing, lethargy and anorexia.

The positive diagnoses were made by PCR (seven cases), bacterial culture (four cases), nasopharyngeal swabs and unspecified laboratory testing (four cases), nasal swab and unspecified laboratory testing (three cases)  and clinical signs of purulent nasal discharge or lymphadenopathy (four cases).

 

GERMANY

Confirmed nothing to report.

Additional results received from Labor Dr Boese GmBh – an HBLB CEMO registered laboratory

Contagious Equine Metritis (CEM)

CEM was confirmed in two horses (one Icelandic gelding and one American Quarter Horse stallion) on two separate premises during the fourth quarter 2017.  Positive diagnoses were confirmed by PCR and culture of genital swabs.

Equine Herpes Virus-1 (EHV-1) Neurological Disease

EHV-1 neurological disease was confirmed in one horse during fourth quarter 2017.  The animal presented with clinical signs including pyrexia and neurological signs. Positive diagnosis was confirmed by PCR on nasopharyngeal swab

Equine Herpes Virus-1 (EHV-1) Respiratory Disease

EHV-1 respiratory disease was confirmed in one horse during fourth quarter 2017.  Positive diagnosis was confirmed by PCR on nasopharyngeal swab.

Equine Herpes Virus-1 (EHV-1) Abortion

EHV-1 abortion was confirmed in two horses on separate premises during fourth quarter 2017.  Positive diagnoses were confirmed by PCR on fetal and placental tissues.

Strangles (Streptococcus equi)  

Strangles was confirmed in three horses on three separate premises during the fourth quarter 2017.  The affected animals showed clinical signs of pyrexia and nasal discharge.  Positive diagnoses were confirmed by bacterial culture and PCR on nasopharyngeal swabs.

 

HONG KONG

Confirmed nothing to report.

 

IRELAND (Republic of)

Equine Herpes Virus (EHV) Infection

Five cases of EHV infection were reported during the fourth quarter 2018 in, County Kildare (two cases), County Limerick (one case), County Tipperary (one case) and County Wexford (one case).  No further information is currently available.

 

ITALY

Regret no report received.

 

JAPAN

Equine Herpes Virus-1 (EHV-1) Abortion

EHV-1 was reported in five Thoroughbreds on five separate premises between 2 October 2017 and 4 December 2017.  Four of the horses were vaccinated.  The confirming laboratories were Hokkaido Hidaka Livestock Hygiene Service Center and Hokkaido Iburi Livestock Hygiene Service Center.

Equine Herpes Virus-1 (EHV-1) Respiratory Disease

EHV-1 respiratory disease was reported in seven performance horses on one premises between 28 September 2017 and 17 October 2017. All horses were unvaccinated. Affected horses showed clinical signs of pyrexia. The confirming laboratory was the Tochigi Livestock Hygiene Service Center.

 

MALAYSIA

Regret no report received.

 

NEW ZEALAND

Confirmed nothing to report.

 

SINGAPORE

Confirmed nothing to report.

 

SOUTH AFRICA

African Horse Sickness (AHS)

The AHS season starts in South Africa in September each year. Between October and December 2017, three single cases of AHS were reported, one case in the Eastern Cape Province, one case in the Free State Province and one case in the Gauteng Province. All three cases occurred within the AHS infected area of the country.

Equine Herpes Virus-1 (EHV-1) INFECTION

Two EHV-1 cases were detected in the Western Cape during the fourth quarter of 2017.

General Arboviruses

In response to a request for clarification, the reports of arboviruses, particularly WNV and Middleburg virus reported to the ICC from South Africa in the first and second quarters of 2017, were based on laboratory reports only, performed as part of research, received from the University of Pretoria’s Vectorborne and Respiratory Virus Programme, Centre for Viral Zoonosis, Department Medical Virology. No verified clinical information is available for any of the cases.

Strangles (Streptococcus equi) 

Strangles occurs sporadically in South Africa.

Piroplasmosis (B.Caballi and T-Equi)

Twenty-seven cases of Piroplasmosis were reported during the fourth quarter of 2017 from six of the nine Provinces in South Africa, including Gauteng, North West, Mpumalanga, Western Cape, Kwazulu Natal and Eastern Cape.

 

SOUTH KOREA

A serological survey of 2017

A serological survey was performed for African Horse Sickness (AHS), Vesicular Stomatitis (VS), Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA), Equine Viral Arteritis (EVA), Japanese Encephalitis (JE), West Nile Virus (WNV) and Equine Influenza (EI) to investigate the serological evidence for the possible presence of the diseases listed above in horses raised in South Korea.

Serum samples of 1,361 horses including; Thoroughbred stallions, broodmares, racehorses, ponies, riding horse, etc. were subjected to this study.  Sample collections were performed by the Korea Racing Authority (KRA) and the tests were conducted by the Animal & Plant Quarantine Agency (APQA) of South Korea. The results were as follows.

 

African Horse Sickness (AHS)

All samples tested negative with commercially available ELISA test kits.

Vesicular Stomatitis (VS)

All samples tested negative with commercially available ELISA test kits and VN test.

Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA)

All samples tested negative with commercially available ELISA test kits and AGID test.

West Nile Fever (WNF)

All samples tested negative with commercially available IgM Antibody Capture ELISA test kits and VN test.

Equine Viral Arteritis (EVA)

All samples tested negative with commercially available ELISA and VN test.

Japanese Encephalitis (JE)

Virus neutralisation tests were performed and 1,268 samples of 1,361 (93.17%) tested positive (due to vaccination).

Equine Influenza

Haemagglutination Inhibition tests were performed and 1,056 samples of 1,361 (77.6%) tested positive (due to vaccination).

A serological survey for Piroplasmosis and Surra in 2017

A serological survey for Piroplasmosis and Surra was conducted from the total 436 serum samples of various Thoroughbred stallions, broodmares, racehorses, ponies, riding horses, etc. stabled in KRA racetracks and farms in the first and second half of year.  The sample collections and the tests were performed by Korea Racing Authority (KRA) of Republic of Korea. The results were as follows.

Piroplasmosis (B. Caballi, T. equi)

All samples tested negative (0%) with commercially available cELISA (Antibody test kit; VMRD; OIE authorized method).

Surra (T. evansi)

All samples tested negative (0%) with commercially available CATT/T.evansi kit; AT&-PU, Belgium.

A survey for Contagious Equine Metritis (CEM) in 2017

KRA conducted the examination for CEM from 2,165 samples of Thoroughbred stallions and broodmares registered in the http://studbook.kra.co.kr .The results were as follows.

Contagious Equine Metritis (CEM)

Twenty-two samples out of 2,165 tested positive (1.02%) by qPCR on venereal swabs. [2016Y: 20/2,086; 0.96% (+)].The positive horses have been in no service and are under movement restrictions. They have been receiving treatment and will be tested by APQA until three negative results are obtained.

 

SPAIN

Regret no report received.

 

SWEDEN

Regret no report received.

 

SWITZERLAND

Equine Herpes Virus-4 (EHV-4)

One case of EHV-4 was confirmed during October 2017 with the positive diagnosis confirmed by PCR.  Clinical signs included pyrexia.

Strangles (Streptococcus equi)

Strangles was confirmed in 14 horses on three separate premises during the fourth quarter 2017 with the positive diagnoses confirmed by PCR.

 

 TURKEY

Glanders (Burkholderia mallei)

A case of glanders was confirmed in one horse on 13 October 2017, during the course of routine screening.  The infected animal was euthanased.  The diagnosis was confirmed by a Mallein test.  The confirming laboratory was Veterinary of Provincial Directorate (National Laboratory).

 

UNITED ARAB EMIRATES (UAE)

Regret no report received.

 

UNITED KINGDOM

Please note that all UK cases and outbreaks have already been notified via interim reports during the fourth quarter and since.  Strangles (Streptococcus equi) remains endemic in UK horses.

 

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

Clostridial Enteritis

Clostridial enteritis/enterocolitis was diagnosed in Kentucky with Clostridium perfringens Type C toxin genotype, linked to six cases of the disease.

Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis (EEE)

Some 30 cases of the disease were confirmed during the period under review of which 12 occurred in Wisconsin.

Equine Herpes Virus-1 &-4 (EHV-1 &-4) INFECTION

EHV-1 and -4 respiratory infection is endemic in states.  Two cases of EHV-1 abortion and one of EHV-4 abortion were diagnosed, each on separate premises.  EHV-1 related neurological disease was confirmed in seven states; Connecticut, Illinois, Kentucky, New Jersey, Oregon, Pennsylvania and Washington.  All but one of the outbreaks involved a single case of the disease.  Seven affected horses in an outbreak associated with a G2254 strain of the virus had to be euthanased.  Most outbreaks occurred at training facilities.

Equine Herpes Virus-2 & -5 (EHV-2 &-5)

Numerous detections of EHV-2 or EHV-5 were reported in several states, some associated with evidence of respiratory disease.

Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA)

Cases of equine infectious anemia were diagnosed in Tennessee (one case), Kansas (two cases), and Montana (multiple cases).

Equine Influenza (EI)

Nine outbreaks of equine influenza were confirmed during the fourth quarter 2017.  Four states, Georgia, Missouri, Ohio and Texas were involved with multiple outbreaks reported in Texas.

Equine Neorickettsiosis

One case of the disease was recorded in Washington State.

Leptospirosis

Eight cases of leptospiral abortion were diagnosed in Kentucky.

Rhodococcal Related Disease

Rhodococcus equi infection is endemic in the USA, with eight cases reported in the fourth quarter 2017.

Pigeon Fever

Infection with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is endemic in the USA; a single case was recorded in Washington State.

Proliferative Enteropathy

Proliferative enteropathy caused by Lawsonia intracellularis was reported in Kentucky (10 cases) and Pennsylvania (one case).

Salmonellosis

Salmonellosis was reported in the fourth quarter of 2017, with 10 cases of serogroup B Salmonellae diagnosed in Kentucky.

Strangles (Streptococcus equi)

Strangles is endemic in the USA.  Thirty-one outbreaks were recorded in a total of 12 states of which at least five had multiple disease events.

West Nile Virus

Many states recorded cases of West Nile encephalitis, with New York and Utah each responsible for 26 cases of the disease out of the overall total of 103 confirmed.

 

 VENEZUELA

Regret no report received.