Summary Report for Second Quarter 2017

Please note that the Australian reports are being reported one quarter in arrears behind the quarter being reported. However, there is a slight delay with the FIRST QUARTER Report of 2017 for Australia, which will be circulated as soon as received. SECOND QUARTER reports for 2017 for other countries are provided after this in the usual way.

This report is based on information received by the Animal Health Trust, Registered Charity Number 209642, which cannot accept any responsibility for the accuracy or
completeness of such information.

REPORT FOR FIRST QUARTER 2016 FROM AUSTRALIA
The report for FIRST quarter 2017 from Australia will follow at a later date.

REPORT FOR THE SECOND QUARTER 2017

ARGENTINA
Regret no report received.

AUSTRALIA
Report pending.

CANADA
Please note that all cases from Canada have already been notified via interim reports during the second quarter.

CHILE
Regret no report received.

DENMARK
Confirmed nothing to report.

FRANCE (Information supplied via the RESPE, the French network for epidemiosurveillance of equine diseases)
Equine Herpes Virus-1 (EHV-1) Abortion
On the 7th April 2017, one case was confirmed in Calvados in an unvaccinated 11-year-old Thoroughbred mare. The positive diagnosis was confirmed by PCR on a fetal liver sample
On 10th April 2017, a new case was confirmed in Sarthe in a vaccinated 17-year-old French Trotter that was jaundiced. Five other mares on the stud farm also aborted. The positive diagnosis was confirmed by PCR on fetal organs. (On the 31st March 2017, the first case in this outbreak had been confirmed in a vaccinated nine-year-old French Trotter. The diagnosis was confirmed by PCR on an uterine swab.)

Equine Herpes Virus-1 (EHV-1) Infection
On 3rd April 2017, one case of EHV-1 infection was confirmed in Pyrénées-Atlantiques in a training facility. The positive diagnosis was confirmed by PCR on nasopharyngeal swab. On 12th April 2017, six new cases were confirmed by PCR on nasopharyngeal swabs; the affected animals showed clinical signs of fever.

Equine Herpes Virus-1 (EHV-1) Neurological Disease
On 19th June 2017, one outbreak was confirmed in Aube in a nine-year-old male Arabian horse that showed clinical signs of ataxia and bladder weakness. The positive diagnosis was confirmed by PCR on a blood sample.

Equine Herpes Virus-1 (EHV-1) Respiratory Disease
On 4th April 2017, one outbreak of EHV-1 respiratory disease was confirmed in Eure in a stud farm. The affected equid was a three-year-old female Cotentin Donkey that showed clinical signs of coughing, nasal discharge and hyperthermia. The positive diagnosis was confirmed by PCR on a nasal swab.

Equine Herpes Virus-3 (EHV3) Coital Exanthema
Two cases of coital exanthema were confirmed in Orne in two mares from different facilities. Positive diagnoses were made by PCR on genital swabs. One of the two mares had not been covered during this breeding season. No epidemiological link was found between the two cases.

Equine Herpes Virus-4 (EHV-4) Respiratory Disease
Fourteen outbreaks of EHV-4 respiratory disease have been confirmed (nine outbreaks with one case each, three outbreaks with two cases each and two outbreaks with three cases each). These outbreaks occurred in Ain, Aude, Calvados, Haute-Garonne, Ille-et-Vilaine, Loire-Atlantique, Manche, Orne, Pyrénées-Atlantiques and Vendée.
Affected horses showed clinical signs of fever, nasal discharge and coughing. Positive diagnoses were confirmed on nasopharyngeal swabs (13 cases) or nasal swabs (one case), using PCR. One case occurred in a Thoroughbred. On 15th April 2017, a case of EHV-4 infection was confirmed in a male horse. The positive diagnosis was made by PCR on a nasopharyngeal swab.

Leptospirosis abortion
On 10th April 2017, one case of leptospirosis abortion was confirmed on a stud farm in Eure in a six-year-old Thoroughbred mare. The positive diagnosis was confirmed by PCR on foetal organs.

Piroplasmosis
Remains endemic in France.

Rotavirus
Three outbreaks of rotavirus infection were confirmed in Orne and Gironde in foals showing clinical signs of diarrhoea (two outbreaks with one case each, one outbreak with two cases). Positive diagnoses were made by PCR on faeces, rectal swab or intestinal contents.

Strangles (Streptococcus equi)
Sixteen outbreaks have been reported (nine outbreaks with one case each, two outbreaks with two cases each, one outbreak with four cases, one outbreak with five cases, one outbreak with seven cases, one outbreak with nine cases, and one outbreak with twenty-five cases). These outbreaks occurred in Ariège, Calvados, Eure, Haute-Garonne, Loir-et-Cher, Loire-Atlantique, Moselle, Pas-de-Calais, Seine-et-Marne, Tarn, Haute-Vienne and Val-de-Marne. Affected horses showed clinical signs of coughing, nasal discharge, fever, lymphadenopathy, anorexia and dysphagia.
The positive diagnoses were made by PCR on nasopharyngeal swabs (nine cases), pus or purulent nasal discharges (three cases), guttural pouch washes (two cases), nasal swab (one case) or blood (one case).

GERMANY
Please note that cases and ourbreaks from Germany have already been notified via interim reports during the second quarter.
Additional results received from Labor Dr Boese GmBh – an HBLB CEMO registered laboratory
Contagious Equine Metritis (CEM)
CEM was confirmed in 15 Icelandic horses (10 stallions and five mares) on 13 separate premises during the second quarter of 2017. Positive diagnoses were confirmed by culture and PCR on genital swabs.

Equine Herpes Virus-1 (EHV-1) Abortion
EHV-1 abortion was confirmed in three horses on three separate premises during the second quarter of 2017. Positive diagnoses were confirmed by PCR on fetal lung aspirate and swabs of uterine discharges and endometrium.

Equine Herpes Virus-1 (EHV-1) Respiratory Disease
EHV-1 respiratory disease was confirmed in five horses on one premises during the second quarter of 2017. Positive diagnoses were confirmed by PCR on nasopharyngeal swabs.

Equine Herpes Virus-4 (EHV-4) Respiratory Disease
EHV-4 respiratory disease was confirmed in nine horses on three separate premises during the second quarter of 2017. Positive diagnoses were confirmed by PCR on nasopharyngeal swabs.

Strangles (Streptococcus equi)
Strangles was confirmed in four horses on four separate premises during the second quarter of 2017. The affected animals showed clinical signs of pyrexia and nasal discharge. Positive diagnoses were confirmed by bacterial culture and PCR on nasopharyngeal swabs (two horses), on abscess material from submandibular lymph nodes (one horse) and on guttural pouch wash (one horse).

HONG KONG
Confirmed nothing to report.

IRELAND (Republic of)
Equine Herpes Virus-1 (EHV-1)
Four cases of EHV-1 were reported during the second quarter 2017. Two cases in County Kildare and two cases in County Tipperary. No further details were available

Equine Herpes Virus-4 (EHV-4)
One case of EHV-4 was reported during the second quarter 2017 in County Kilkenny. No further details were available.

ITALY
Regret no report received.

JAPAN
Equine Herpes Virus-1 (EHV-1) Abortion
EHV-1 abortion was diagnosed in 11 Thoroughbreds on ten separate premises between 14th April 2017 and 19th May 2017. Positive diagnoses were confirmed by Hokkaido Hidaka Livestock Hygiene Service Center and Hokkaido Iburi Livestock Hygiene Service Center. Ten of the animals were vaccinated.

MALAYSIA
Regret no report received.

NEW ZEALAND
Confirmed nothing to report.

SINGAPORE
Confirmed nothing to report.

SOUTH AFRICA
African Horse Sickness (AHS)
In the second quarter of 2017, outbreaks of African horse sickness were confirmed in all Provinces in South Africa except in the Western Cape. No cases occurred within the AHS controlled area of South Africa in the Western Cape Province. Cases of AHS in the infected area are as expected for this period of time.

Equine Encephalosis
Testing for Equine Encephalosis Virus (EEV) is frequently done in conjunction with AHS testing in South Africa. Cases of EEV were confirmed predominantly in the Gauteng Province with the number of cases and distribution not as widespread as during the same period in previous years.

General Arboviruses
During January to June 2017, an increase in Middleburg (MIDV) and West Nile virus (WNV) positives were detected from across South Africa relative to 2016, through an on-going surveillance scheme managed by the University of Pretoria’s emerging vectorborne and respiratory virus programme, Centre for Viral Zoonosis, Department of Medical Virology. Veterinarians from across the country submit samples from neurological cases they encounter throughout the year.

A total of 44 WNV cases and 41 MIDV cases were detected, with two MIDV/EEV co-infections, five WNV/EEV co-infections and three MIDV/WNV co-infections. All WNV PCR positive cases in horses involved lineage 2 WNV. Cases peaked in April and May but decreased significantly with the onset of colder weather in June.
Most cases of WNV and MIDV were detected in the Gauteng Province, KwaZulu Natal and the Northern Cape.

Diagnostic testing includes realtime RT PCR tests for flavi and alphaviruses with specific probes for WNV, Wesselsbron, Middelburg and Sindbis viruses and specific PCRs for Shunivirus and EEV. Serology for WNV includes an IgM ELISA with confirmatory neutralisation assays.

Few horses are currently vaccinated for WNV, although the results of diagnostic testing has raised awareness, with more owners and veterinarians planning to vaccinate ahead of next season.

Strangles (Streptococcus equi)
Strangles occurs sporadically in South Africa.

SOUTH KOREA
Confirmed nothing to report.

SPAIN
Regret no report received

SWEDEN
Confirmed nothing to report.

SWITZERLAND
Atypical Myopathy
Atypical Myopathy was confirmed in two horses on two separate premises in the same area of the country during second quarter 2017. Diagnoses were confirmed made on the basis of clinical signs accompanied by very high plasma CK and AST levels.

Erlichiosis
Erlichiosis was confirmed in four horses on three separate premises during second quarter 2017. Diagnoses were confirmed by agent isolation.

Equine Herpes Virus-1 &-4 (EHV-1 &-4)
One case of mixed EHV-1 and -4 infection was reported on 19th May 2017. Clinical signs included respiratory signs and pyrexia. Positive diagnoses were confirmed by PCR for EHV-1 and -4 and blood samples for EHV-4.

Equine Infectious Anaemia (EIA)
One case of EIA was confirmed in a polo pony on 10th July 2017. Diagnosis was confirmed by serology as previously reported (ICC 11th July #7).
Piroplasmosis

One case of piroplasmosis was confirmed on 31st May 2017. Diagnosis was confirmed by serology.

Strangles (Streptococcus equi)
Strangles was confirmed in three horses on three separate premises in different areas of the country during second quarter 2017. Positive diagnoses were confirmed by agent isolation.

TURKEY
Confirmed nothing to report.

UNITED ARAB EMIRATES (UAE)
Regret no report received.

UNITED KINGDOM
Please note that all UK cases and outbreaks have already been notified via interim reports during the first quarter and since. Strangles (Streptococcus equi) remains endemic in UK horses.

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Clostridial Diseases
Three cases of Clostridium perfringens Type A toxin genotype were diagnosed in foals in Kentucky. One case of Tyzzer’s disease (C. piliforme) was also confirmed in the state as were isolated cases of C. novyi and C. sordelli infection.

Equine Herpes Virus Disease Syndromes
Equine Herpes Virus-1 and – 4 (EHV-1 and -4) related respiratory disease was widespread in various states, with EHV-4 primarily implicated in causing respiratory infection in foals. There was only one report of a case of EHV-1 abortion during second quarter 2017. Epidemiologically distinct outbreaks of EHV-1 neurological disease were confirmed in four states, California, Colorado, Maryland and New Jersey. Each of the reported outbreaks involved single cases of the disease. Only limited information was available on the genotype of the strains of EHV-1 associated with these disease events.

Equine Herpes Virus-2 & -5 (EHV-2 & -5)
Multiple cases of infection with EHV-2 and/or EHV-5 were recorded in several states, with some associated with evidence of intercurrent respiratory disease.

Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA)
Equine infectious anemia was reported on two premises in Colorado, both epidemiologically linked to each other. The index case on the first premises was a five-year-old. racing Quarter horse; two additional cases of infection were subsequently confirmed on that premises. EIA was diagnosed in three out of nine horses on the second premises.

Equine Influenza (EI)
Equine influenza is endemic in the USA. The disease was confirmed in 14 states with outbreaks in seven states involving multiple cases of the disease.

Nocardioform Placentitis
Five cases of Nocardioform placentitis associated with Amycolatopsis spp. were diagnosed in Kentucky, and two with Crossiella equi infection.

Proliferative Enteropathy
One case of Lawsonia intracellularis infection was confirmed in a foal in Kentucky.

Rhodococcal Related Disease
Rhodococcus equi infection is endemic in the USA. A total of 22 cases were diagnosed during the second quarter 2017.

Salmonellosis
Twenty-three cases of Salmonellosis were confirmed in the second quarter of 2017, 15 with serogroup B Salmonellae, two with C1 Salmonellae and six with C2 Salmonellae.

Strangles (Streptococcus equi)
Strangles is endemic in the USA, with the disease reported in 16 states. Multiple cases were recorded on affected premises in four states, with high clinical attack rates seen in horses and ponies on a premises in one western state and also in corralled wild horses in two states, Idaho and Utah.

West Nile Encephalitis (WNE)
A case of West Nile virus infection was diagnosed in a Thoroughbred yearling in Kentucky that had a history of last vaccination against the disease in 2016.

VENEZUELA
Regret no report received.

REGARDS
INTERNATIONAL COLLATING CENTRE