Equine Flu February 2019

Outbreaks

40. Shropshire
On 28 February 2019, AHT confirmed an outbreak of EI in Shropshire. There are three non-Thoroughbreds with clinical sings of coughing and nasal discharge. Two are unvaccinated and one had a lapsed vaccination status. Positive diagnoses were confirmed by PCR on nasopharyngeal swabs. There are a total of 60 horses on the premises with varying vaccination status. Voluntary movement restrictions have been implemented and will continue until two weeks after resolution of clinical signs.

39. Derbyshire
On 25 February 2019, AHT confirmed an outbreak of EI on a premises in Derbyshire. The affected horse was an unvaccinated non-Thoroughbred, recently imported from Ireland. The day after arrival it presented with clinical signs of coughing, nasal discharge and pyrexia. The positive diagnosis was confirmed by PCR on a nasopharyngeal swab. There are 10 in-contacts, of which around three are vaccinated and will also be booster vaccinated. There are two other horses with clinical signs at time of reporting. Voluntary movement restrictions have been instigated.

38. Yorkshire
On 22 February 2019, AHT confirmed an outbreak of EI on a premises in Yorkshire. The affected horses are unvaccinated non-Thoroughbreds. One presented with coughing, inappetence and pyrexia and the other is coughing. The positive diagnoses were confirmed by PCR on nasopharyngeal swabs.

37. Cornwall
On 22 February 2019, AHT confirmed an outbreak of EI on a premises in Cornwall. There are a total of two unvaccinated non-Thoroughbreds that presented with coughing, nasal discharge and pyrexia. Both horses were new arrivals on the premises and presented with clinical signs the day after arrival. They were exported from Ireland three days prior to developing clinical signs. Positive diagnoses were confirmed by PCR on nasopharyngeal swabs. The horses were placed in isolation on arrival and will be maintained in isolation for one month.

36. Yorkshire
On 20 February 2019, AHT confirmed an outbreak of EI on a premises in Yorkshire. There are five nonThoroughbreds with clinical signs of inappetence, coughing, nasal discharge and pyrexia. Two of the five cases are vaccinated. The first case was a recent new arrival that developed clinical signs ten days after arrival. Positive diagnoses were confirmed by PCR on nasopharyngeal swabs. There are a total of 18 incontacts with varying vaccination statuses. All are being closely monitored, including daily temperature monitoring and there have been no reports of any clinical signs. The premises has instigated voluntary movement restrictions.

35. Sussex
On 20 February 2019, AHT confirmed a case of EI on a premises in Sussex. The affected horse is a vaccinated non-Thoroughbred that presented with a cough at exercise, mild lethargy, but no pyrexia. After three days, the horse was back to normal. There are a total of 25 horses on the premises and all are vaccinated and none are reported to be showing clinical signs. Positive diagnosis was made by PCR on a
nasopharyngeal swab.

34. Hertfordshire
On 20 February 2019, AHT confirmed a case of EI on a premises in Hertfordshire. The affected horse is an unvaccinated non-Thoroughbred that presented with coughing, pyrexia and nasal discharge. There are a total of six other horses on the premises with varying vaccination statuses and none are reported to be showing clinical signs. Positive diagnosis was made by PCR on a nasopharyngeal swab.

33. Gloucestershire
On 20 February 2019, AHT confirmed a case of EI on a premises in Gloucestershire. The affected horse is an unvaccinated non-Thoroughbred that presented with transient pyrexia and nasal discharge. There is one other unvaccinated horse in the group with clinical signs of nasal discharge. The three other incontacts are vaccinated and currently have no clinical signs. Positive diagnosis was made by PCR on a nasopharyngeal swab.

32. Kent
On 19 February 2019, AHT confirmed an outbreak of EI on a premises in Kent. There are a total of three unvaccinated non-Thoroughbreds with clinical signs on pyrexia but minimal coughing and nasal discharge. There are a total of 20 in contacts with varying vaccination status. Voluntary movement restrictions are in place. Positive diagnoses were made by PCR on a nasopharyngeal swab.

31. Staffordshire
On 18 February 2019, AHT confirmed an outbreak of EI on a premises in Staffordshire. There is one laboratory confirmed positive by PCR on a nasopharyngeal swab among a group of five, with all five demonstrating clinical signs. All are unvaccinated non-Thoroughbreds. Clinical signs include mild transient coughing, nasal discharge and pyrexia. Two cases have also demonstrated pyrexia and a reduced appetite. All cases are improving and voluntary movement restrictions are in place.

30. Norfolk
On 18 February 2019, AHT confirmed a case of EI on a premises in Norfolk. The affected horse was an unvaccinated non-Thoroughbred, recently imported from Ireland. The day after arrival it presented with coughing, nasal discharge and lethargy. Positive diagnosis was confirmed by PCR on a nasopharyngeal swab. The horse has been in isolation since arrival. There is one other vaccinated horse on the premises.

29. Worcestershire
On 16 February 2019, AHT confirmed a case of EI on a premises in Worcestershire. The affected horse isan unvaccinated non-Thoroughbred that presented with inappetence, a dry harsh cough and serous nasal discharge. The positive diagnosis was confirmed by PCR on a nasopharyngeal swab. There are a total of 15 in contacts, of which 12 have similar clinical signs.

28. Norfolk
On 15 February 2019, AHT confirmed a case of EI in an unvaccinated non-Thoroughbred on a premises in Norfolk. The affected horse was imported from Ireland and six days after arrival developed clinical signs of nasal discharge, pyrexia and lethargy. The positive diagnosis was made by PCR on a nasopharyngeal swab. There are around 25 in-contacts with varying vaccination status and they are not currently reported to be demonstrating any clinical signs. The premises has instigated voluntary movement restrictions.

27. Worcestershire
On 15 February 2019, AHT confirmed an outbreak of EI on a premises in Worcestershire. There are a total of 24 non-Thoroughbreds on the premises, of which 16 were confirmed positive by PCR on nasopharyngeal swabs. All horses were sampled three days after the suspect exposure. Multiple outbreaks in this region are thought to be related to mixing of horses at an event such as a hunt meet. There are five horses that are vaccinated in the group, of which three were positive on the day of sampling, two have no clinical signs and one only has mild signs. The other 13 positives are unvaccinated and presented with coughing, nasal discharge and pyrexia, with three of these demonstrating quite severe clinical signs. All are gradually improving. The premises has instigated voluntary movement restrictions.

26. Shropshire
On 15 February 2019, AHT confirmed an outbreak of EI on a premises in Shropshire. There are a total of four unvaccinated non-Thoroughbreds on the premises and all have tested positive for EI by PCR on nasopharyngeal swabs. Clinical signs have been mild to moderate in severity, all have been coughing, lethargic and have bilateral nasal discharge and two cases were pyrexic on the day of examination. These horses attended a hunt meet on 9 February and presented with clinical signs three days after. Other horses that attended this meet from other premises have also since been confirmed positive.

25. Worcestershire
On 13 February 2019, AHT confirmed a case of EI on a premises in Worcestershire. The affected horse is an unvaccinated non-Thoroughbred that presented with coughing, nasal discharge and pyrexia. The positive diagnosis was confirmed by PCR on a nasopharyngeal swab. There are a total of 35 in-contacts, of which about half are vaccinated. There was also a laboratory confirmed strangles case confirmed on the yard in the last month and voluntary movement restrictions have instigated since this confirmation.

24. Worcestershire
On 13 February 2019, AHT confirmed a case of EI on a premises in Worcestershire. The affected horse is a vaccinated non-Thoroughbred that presented with a mild cough and mucoid nasal discharge. The horse has had no pyrexia and continued to be bright and eating. The appropriate vaccine manufacturers and the Veterinary Medicines Directorate will be made aware of this case. The positive diagnosis was confirmed by PCR on a nasopharyngeal swab. There are no in-contacts.

23. Central Scotland
On 13 February 2019, AHT confirmed a case of EI on a premises in Central Scotland. The affected horse is a recently acquired unvaccinated non-Thoroughbred that presented the day after arrival with nasal discharge which progressed to coughing, lethargy and pyrexia. The positive diagnosis was confirmed by PCR on a nasopharyngeal swab. There are a total of three vaccinated in-contacts. The premises has instigated voluntary movement restrictions.

22. Buckinghamshire
On 13 February 2019, AHT confirmed a case of EI on a premises in Buckinghamshire. The affected horse is a recently acquired unvaccinated non-Thoroughbred that presented the day after arrival with a harsh cough, nasal discharge and pyrexia. On 16 February 2019, AHT confirmed a further three cases on this premises in unvaccinated non-Thoroughbreds that presented with coughing and developed bilateral mucopurulent nasal discharge. Positive diagnoses were confirmed by PCR on nasopharyngeal swabs. There are a total of 30 horses on the premises.

21. Hertfordshire
On 13 February 2019, AHT confirmed an outbreak of EI on a premises in Hertfordshire. There are a total of 30 non-Thoroughbreds on the premises, of which the majority are unvaccinated. There are five laboratory confirmed positives by PCR on nasopharyngeal swabs. A total of 15 horses have clinical signs of coughing, pyrexia and nasal discharge at time of reporting. The premises has instigated voluntary movement restrictions.

On 19 February 2019, AHT confirmed a further positive case at this premises involving a vaccinated horse.

20. Sussex
On 13 February 2019, AHT confirmed a case of flu in an unvaccinated Thoroughbred on a non-racing premises in Sussex. The affected horse was recently imported from Ireland and developed a cough the day after arrival. Clinical signs progressed to pyrexia and lethargy. The positive diagnosis was made by PCR on a nasopharyngeal swab. There are a total of two vaccinated in-contacts and they are not currently demonstrating any clinical signs.

19. Worcestershire
On 12 February 2019, AHT confirmed an outbreak of EI in Worcestershire. The laboratory confirmed positive case is an unvaccinated non-Thoroughbred that presented with serous nasal discharge. There are a total of eight unvaccinated in-contacts, of which most have a harsh cough and all appear to be bright and eating. The positive diagnosis was confirmed by PCR on a nasopharyngeal swab. The premises is being isolated and this will continue until two weeks after clinical signs have been resolved.

18. Leicestershire
On 12 February 2019, AHT confirmed an outbreak of EI on a premises in Leicestershire. There are two unvaccinated non-Thoroughbreds displaying clinical signs of coughing, nasal discharge and pyrexia. Both were recently imported from Scotland and have been isolated. Positive diagnoses were made by PCR on nasopharyngeal swabs. The affected horses have been isolated.

17. Kent
On 12 February 2019, AHT confirmed an outbreak of EI on a premises in Kent. One of the affected horses was a vaccinated non-Thoroughbred that presented with coughing, nasal discharge and pyrexia. Positive diagnosis was made by PCR on a nasopharyngeal swab. The yard had received a new arrival in the preceding two weeks from Ireland. There are a total of around 20 in contacts with varying vaccination status, of which 5 are also reportedly showing similar clinical signs.

16. Derbyshire
On 11 February 2019, AHT confirmed a case of EI on a premises in Derbyshire. The affected horse was a non-Thoroughbred, recently imported from Ireland. It had an unknown vaccination history and presented with coughing, nasal discharge and pyrexia. Positive diagnosis was confirmed by PCR on a nasopharyngeal swab. There are around ten unvaccinated in contacts on the premises and similar clinical signs have been reported in two of these.

15. Central Scotland
On 11 February 2019, AHT confirmed a case of EI on a premises in Central Scotland. The affected horse was a newly acquired non-Thoroughbred that presented with mucopurulent nasal discharge. The premises it was acquired from reportedly regularly imports horses from Ireland. Vaccination status is unknown but clinical signs have been mild and transient. Positive diagnosis was confirmed by PCR on a nasopharyngeal
swab. There are a total of around eight other horses on the premises.

14. Sussex
On 11 February 2019, AHT confirmed an outbreak of EI on a premises in Sussex. There are three unvaccinated non-Thoroughbreds displaying clinical signs of coughing, nasal discharge and pyrexia. Positive diagnoses were made by PCR on a nasopharyngeal swabs. The affected horses have been isolated.

13. Suffolk
On 10 February 2019, AHT confirmed an outbreak of EI on a racing yard in Suffolk. There have been a total of four laboratory confirmed infections by PCR on nasopharyngeal swabs. All horses on this premises were sampled as part of tracings being performed following confirmed cases in a racing yard in Cheshire last week. One horse on this premises that had run at Newcastle on 5 February has tested negative. All horses are vaccinated and the positive cases have been reported to be displaying no clinical signs to date. Sequencing performed at the AHT on one swab sample from this outbreak confirms a FC1 virus

12. Suffolk
On 9 February 2019 AHT confirmed two cases of EI on a premises in Suffolk. The affected horses are vaccinated two-year-old Thoroughbreds among a group of around 20 animals with signs including raised temperatures and nasal discharges. This premises is a separate part of the same complex where cases had previously been diagnosed on 4 February 2019. No details are yet available as to the specifics of the animals’ vaccination histories.

11. Middlesex
On 8 February 2019 AHT confirmed a new case of EI on a premises in Middlesex. The affected horse is a non-Thoroughbred that had recently moved from another premises in south-east England and which had only received the first dose of a primary vaccination course several days before being diagnosed with EI. The animal presented with pyrexia and inappetance, coughing and profuse mucopurulent nasal discharge.

10. Somerset
On 7 February 2019, AHT confirmed a case of EI on a premises in Somerset. The affected horse is a nonThoroughbred that presented with transient pyrexia and required no treatment. The horse had received annual vaccinations but the 2017 annual vaccination was administered one month late. Vaccinations were subsequently restarted in May 2018 but the third in the course was missed. There is one other horse with
similar clinical signs and there are a total of 50 horses on the premises. All horse movements have been voluntarily stopped and all horses are being closely monitored.

On 15 February 2019, AHT confirmed an additional case in a vaccinated non-Thoroughbred at this premises that presented with serous nasal discharge that progressed to bilateral mucoid nasal discharge. All horses on the premises have been closely monitored, including twice daily temperatures, since the confirmation of the first case on 7 February. This second laboratory confirmed case has had no other clinical signs, including no pyrexia.

9. Cheshire
On 7 February 2019, AHT confirmed further cases of EI on a racing yard in Cheshire (where three cases had been confirmed yesterday – see below). A further three vaccinated Thoroughbreds have been confirmed positive by PCR on nasopharyngeal swabs. There are a total of six confirmed positives among a group a group of 120. The premises has stopped all horse movements and all horses are being closely monitored. The British Horseracing Authority subsequently cancelled all racing meetings scheduled to take place in Britain until 13 February in order to evaluate the situation, this situation will remain under review as evidence accumulates on surveillance testing among racing yards.

On 6 February 2019, AHT confirmed 3 cases of EI in vaccinated Thoroughbreds on a premises in Cheshire. The positive diagnoses were confirmed by PCR on nasopharyngeal swabs. Virus isolation is currently underway at the AHT. Sequence analysis has identified the strain as belonging to FC1.

7 & 8. Suffolk
On 4 February 2019, AHT confirmed two separate outbreaks of EI in Suffolk. One outbreak affected eight vaccinated two-year-old Thoroughbreds that presented with coughing, nasal discharge and pyrexia. The affected horses had last been vaccinated either with ProteqFlu (Boehringer-Ingelheim) or Equilis Prequenza (MSD Animal Health). Both of these vaccines contain a representative of Florida clade 1 which is one of the
current OIE-recommended vaccine strains. Both vaccine manufacturers have been informed of the situation.

The second outbreak affected six unvaccinated non-Thoroughbreds. The positive diagnoses in both outbreaks were confirmed by PCR on nasopharyngeal swabs. These animals have remained under close veterinary supervision whilst in isolation since being diagnosed with EI on 4 February 2019 and have required anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial treatment because of the severity and persistence of their clinical signs. On 8 February 2019 one animal deteriorated into respiratory distress and negative energy balance due to inappetance and when laminitis developed the decision was taken to perform euthanasia on humane grounds. The five remaining animals continue under veterinary care and will be retested to demonstrate freedom from infection before being moved from isolation.

Virus isolation for both outbreaks is currently underway at the AHT. Sequence analysis has identified both Suffolk outbreak strains as belonging to FC1.

6. Yorkshire
On 1 February 2019, AHT confirmed a case of EI on a premises in Yorkshire. The affected animal is an unvaccinated seven-year-old native Irish breed pony that was imported a few days prior to developing pyrexia, nasal discharge and coughing. The positive diagnosis was confirmed by PCR on a nasopharyngeal swab. The horse has been isolated since arrival. Virus isolation and sequencing analysis is currently
underway at the AHT and details will be made available soon.