Equine Flu March 2019

Outbreaks

61. Berkshire
On 27 March 2019, AHT confirmed a case of EI on a premises in Berkshire. The affected horse was an unvaccinated non-Thoroughbred that presented with a seven day history of coughing and nasal discharge on 25 March 2019. There are a total of around 25 in contacts, with a mixed vaccination status. There is one other horse displaying similar clinical signs. Voluntary movement restrictions have been put in place. The positive diagnosis was confirmed by PCR on a nasopharyngeal swab.

60. Lincolnshire
On 27 March 2019, AHT confirmed a case of EI on a premises in Lincolnshire. The affected horse was a lapsed vaccinated non-Thoroughbred that was a new arrival from the Netherlands. It developed a cough shortly after arrival, progressing to pyrexia. There are a total of around 4 vaccinated in contacts. Voluntary movement restrictions have been put in place. The positive diagnosis was confirmed by PCR on a nasopharyngeal swab.

59. Cambridgeshire
On 27 March 2019, Rossdales confirmed a case of EI on a premises in Cambridgeshire. The affected horse is an unvaccinated non-Thoroughbred that presented with inappetence, coughing, nasal discharge and pyrexia. There are a total of around 35 in contacts, with a mixed vaccination status. Voluntary movement restrictions have been put in place. The positive diagnosis was confirmed by PCR on a nasopharyngeal swab.

58. Northamptonshire
On 25 March 2019, AHT confirmed an outbreak of EI on a premises in Northamptonshire. The two laboratory confirmed positive horses were unvaccinated late-gestation pregnant Thoroughbred brood mares that presented with fever, coughing, nasal discharge and increased respiratory rate several days after arriving from Ireland. Both mares have been isolated at grass away from approximately 20 other horses on the premises, which have mixed vaccine status and are being closely clinically monitored. The positive diagnoses were confirmed by PCR on nasopharyngeal swabs.

57. Norfolk
On 25 March 2019, AHT confirmed an outbreak of EI on a premises in Norfolk. The laboratory confirmed positive horse was an unvaccinated non-Thoroughbred that presented with coughing and nasal discharge, having arrived recently from a private yard. There are between 15 and 20 other horses on the premises most of which are not vaccinated and some of which have developed similar clinical signs. The positive diagnosis was confirmed by PCR on a nasopharyngeal swab.

56. Derbyshire
On 22 March 2019, AHT confirmed an outbreak of EI on a premises in Derbyshire. The laboratory confirmed positive index case was an unvaccinated non-Thoroughbred that presented with coughing, nasal discharge and pyrexia. One unvaccinated in contact presented with similar clinical signs, but tested PCR negative on a nasopharyngeal sample taken on 19 March. An acute and convalescent blood sample was tested to assist in diagnosis, with a rise in titre noted, confirming infection in this in contact. There are total of 13 other in contacts, with an unreported vaccination status and these have not yet shown clinical signs. The positive diagnosis was confirmed by PCR on a nasopharyngeal swab. The yard had received new arrivals in the preceding few weeks.

55. London
On 20 March 2019, AHT confirmed an outbreak of EI on a premises in London. The affected horse was an unvaccinated non-Thoroughbred that presented with pyrexia. There is one other horse with similar clinical signs, with a total of 50 horses on the premises. The cases presented two days after attendance at a competitive event. The positive diagnosis was confirmed by PCR on a nasopharyngeal swab.

54. Gloucestershire
On 18 March 2019, AHT confirmed an outbreak of EI on a premises in Gloucestershire. The affected animal is a four-year-old unvaccinated non-Thoroughbred with clinical signs that included pyrexia, nasal discharge, dry cough, inappetence and weight loss, which had been bought at a sale in Ireland before being shipped to the premises and is responding to anti-inflammatory and antibiotic treatment. The other two horses on the premises are older animals that have been previously vaccinated, one of them recently and have not yet shown clinical signs. The positive diagnosis was by PCR on a nasopharyngeal swab.

53. Warwickshire
On 18 March 2019, AHT confirmed an outbreak of EI on a premises in Warwickshire. The two animals with confirmed EI are both four-year-old unvaccinated non-Thoroughbred geldings that were part of a consignment of four horses that had been imported from Ireland and presented with pyrexia. There are approximately 20 horses on the premises, with the remainder reported as vaccinated and not yet showing signs. The positive diagnosis was by PCR on nasopharyngeal swabs.

52. Kent
On 18 March 2019, AHT confirmed an outbreak of EI on a premises in Kent. The affected horse was an unvaccinated non-Thoroughbred, recently imported from Ireland. The horse had received a first vaccination with on 12 March 2019 shortly after arriving on the yard. Signs were then first noted on 15 March and included inappetence, coughing and mucopurulent nasal discharge. There are 5 vaccinated in contacts that have not so far shown any signs of disease. The positive diagnosis was confirmed by PCR on a nasopharyngeal swab.

51. Cumbria
On 15 March 2019, AHT confirmed a case of EI on a premises in Cumbria. The affected animal is a unvaccinated non-Thoroughbred that had recently arrived on the private yard following post-purchase movement from another part of the UK. The horse presented with signs of mild fever, coughing and nasal discharge shortly after arriving. The only other horse on the property is vaccinated and has shown no clinical signs to date. Positive diagnosis was by PCR on a nasopharyngeal swab.

50. Staffordshire
On 15 March 2019, AHT confirmed an outbreak of EI on a premises in Staffordshire. There is one laboratory confirmed case by PCR on a nasopharyngeal swab. The horse is unvaccinated and presented with a 10 day history of a mild dry cough. There is one unvaccinated in contact that has since developed a slight cough. Voluntary movement restrictions have been instigated.

49. Yorkshire
On 15 March 2019, AHT confirmed an outbreak of EI on a premises in Yorkshire. There is one laboratory confirmed case by PCR on a nasopharyngeal swab. The horse is unvaccinated and presented with coughing, inappetence, mucopurulent nasal discharge and pyrexia. Two days before this horse presented, two unvaccinated Donkeys presented with respiratory signs. There is also one other in contact with clinical signs of nasal discharge that is unvaccinated. There are a total of 20 horses at the premises and the majority are vaccinated. Voluntary movement restrictions have been instigated.

48. Herefordshire
On 14 March 2019, AHT confirmed an outbreak of EI on a premises in Herefordshire. The affected animal is a lapsed-vaccinated non-Thoroughbred with typical clinical signs that included pyrexia, dry cough and lethargy and were noted several days after arrival on to the premises of two non-vaccinated animals, one of which had a nasal discharge. Positive diagnosis was by PCR on a nasopharyngeal swab.

47. Flintshire
On 13 March 2019, AHT confirmed an outbreak of EI on a premises in Flintshire. The index case presented on 2 March 2019 with clinical signs of pyrexia, coughing, serous nasal discharge and lethargy. A nasopharyngeal swab taken on 3 March 2019 had a low copy number negative result on PCR. Vaccination status is unknown. A blood sample was taken on 3 March and 8 March. This was tested by haemagglutination inhibition, with a greater than four-fold rise in titre noted between the two samples, with no vaccination administered in this time frame, confirming a diagnosis of EI. The index case was one of two new arrivals from Europe two weeks before clinical signs were noted. The other new arrival also presented with coughing and nasal discharge. A nasopharyngeal swab taken on 8 March was negative, but the horse had a high EI titre on serology. Another unvaccinated horse also presented with clinical signs of coughing and nasal discharge and a nasopharyngeal swab taken on 8 March was negative but the horse had a high EI titre on serology. There are a total of 11 horses on the premises, of which the majority are vaccinated.

Please see https://www.aht.org.uk/disease-surveillance/equiflunet/equiflunet-for-vets for detailed information regarding optimal samples to take depending on duration of clinical signs at time of presentation. This outbreak demonstrates the benefits of utilising both PCR and serology to rule in/out a diagnosis of EI.

46. Berkshire
On 12 March 2019, Axiom Veterinary Laboratories confirmed three cases of EI on a premises in Berkshire. The cases were non-vaccinated non-Thoroughbreds that had recently been imported from Ireland. There are other vaccinated horses on the premises but which are not showing clinical signs at this stage. The positive diagnoses were made by qPCR on nasopharyngeal swabs. The AHT are awaiting samples for virus
isolation and characterisation.

45. Sussex
On 7 March 2019, AHT confirmed a case of EI on a premises in Sussex. The case is a non-vaccinated non-Thoroughbred that presented with a nasal discharge and having been imported from Ireland. There are approximately 30 other horses on the premises that are vaccinated but which are not showing clinical signs at this stage. The positive diagnosis was made by qPCR on a nasopharyngeal swab.

44. Sussex
On 5 March 2019, AHT confirmed a case of EI on a premises in Sussex. The case is a vaccinated non-Thoroughbred, that presented with a mucopurulent nasal discharge. There are 18 other horses that are vaccinated but which are not showing clinical signs at this stage. The positive diagnosis was made by qPCR on a nasopharyngeal swab.

43. Sussex
On 5 March 2019, AHT confirmed an outbreak of EI on a premises in Sussex. The case is an unvaccinated non-Thoroughbred, that had contact with another horse reported to have been recently imported from Ireland. The case presented with harsh dry coughing, nasal discharge, pyrexia and inappetence and there is one directly in-contact animal, which had recently been imported showing signs of a nasal discharge. There are 18 other horses that are vaccinated but which are not showing clinical signs at this stage. The positive diagnosis was made on 5 March 2019 by PCR on a nasopharyngeal swab taken on 4 March 2019.

42. Staffordshire
On 4 March 2019, AHT confirmed an outbreak of EI on a premises in Staffordshire. The case is an unvaccinated non-Thoroughbred, that presented with signs of dry harsh cough and mucopurulent nasal discharge on 1 March 2019. There are no further cases reported on the premises of five horses, three of which are fully and recently vaccinated.

41. Suffolk
On 4 March 2019, AHT confirmed an outbreak of EI on a premises in Suffolk. The laboratory confirmed case is an unvaccinated non-Thoroughbred, recently imported from Ireland. It presented with coughing, nasal discharge, pyrexia and inappetence. The positive diagnosis was made by PCR on a nasopharyngeal swab. There are 14 in-contacts with varying vaccination status and four of these have had mild signs of
coughing.